The Psychology of Advertising and Marketing

When we talk about the Psychology Of Advertising, perception is paramount. Your advertisements are all about perception so you must make the most of each and every advertisement. You need to know what works and what does not so do you waste your time and money on bad copy. A series of experiments were carried out to determine whether white or black type made the more attractive display advertisements. Over 500 people were used in the experiment. The background for the white type was gray in some cases, but in most cases it was black. The results show that the ordinary reader is more likely to notice display type which is black than a display type of the same sort which is white.

Another series of laboratory experiments was made on the same subject. Particularly prepared pages were shown for one-seventh of a second. On part of the sheets black letters on white background and white letters on black background were shown. In other cases one half of the sheet had a black background, with words in white type, and the other half of the sheet had a white background with words in black type. Scores of cards were constructed in which all the possible combinations of white and black were made and shown to a number of persons for such a short space of time that no one could perceive all there was on any sheet. Under these circumstances the subjects saw what first attracted their attention and what was the easiest to perceive. The final results showed that the black letters on a white background were seen oftener than the white type on a black background. This proves true with other colors too. A dark font color on a light background is noted more often than a light font color on a dark background. Use the right combination unless you are seeking a specific "feel" for your advertisement.

It seems quite certain that, other things being equal, those advertisements will be the most often read which are printed in type which is the most easily read. The difference in the appearance of the type in many cases may be so small that even persons experienced in the choosing of type may not be able to tell which one is the more legitimate, and yet the difference in their values ​​may be great enough to make It a matter of importance to the advertiser as to which type he should use.

If the matter of the proper use of type is of importance to the advertiser, it is even more important that he should make a wise use of graphics.

The graphic is frequently used merely as a means of attracting attention, and its function as a symbolic illustration is disregarded. In a few cases this may be wise and even necessary, but when we consider the value of an graphic as a symbol, we are surprised that graphics are not used more extensively as well as more judiciously. The first form of writing was picture writing, and the most simple and direct form of graphic representation is through the picture and not through the printed word. At a single glance we can usually read about four words; That is to, say, the width of perception for printed words is about four. At a single glance at an illustration we can see as much as could be told in a whole page of printed matter. The width of perception for illustrations is very much more extensive than it is for printed forms of expression.

The illustration may perform either one or both of two functions. It may be a picture picture used to attract attention or it may be an "illustration" and a real aid to perception by assisting the text to tell the story which is to be presented. In the first case it would have been called an irrelevant painting; In the second case it is relevant. There have been several investigations carried on to determine the relative attention value of relevant and unlawful illustrations. Although the results so far, reached are not so decisive as may be desired, yet it looks certain that the attention value of relevant illustrations is greater than had been supposedly and that the irrelevant "picture" is frequently not so potent in attracting attention as a Relevant illustration would be. Under these circumstances it seems that, in general, the illustration in an advertisement should have the double function of attracting attention and assisting perception. Which one of these functions is the more important might be a profitable question for discussion, but when these two functions can be united in the same illustration, its value is enhanced twofold. Irrelevant illustrations are produced purely because they are expected to attract attention, when in reality they may attract the attention of no one except the person who designed them and of the unfortunate man who has to pay for them. There are many illustrations produced and inserted in advertisements because they are supposed to assist the perception. They are supposed to tell the story of the goods advertised and to be a form of argumentation. The designer of the illustration and one familiar with the goods knows what the picture stands for, and so for him it is a symbol of the goods and tells the story of the special advantages of the goods. To one unacquainted with the illustration and with the goods advertised, the illustration is no illustration at all. Not only that, but an illustration may distract the viewer from the actual message. Things animated graphics may actually draw the eyes away and the viewer will never get back to the actual message.

The advertiser is so familiar with what he has to offer that he can not appreciate the difficulty the public has in getting a clear and complete perception by means of his advertisements of the goods advertised. It is almost impossible to err on the side of clearness. A sketchy illustration may appear artistic to the designer, but there is danger that it will be taken as meaningless scrawls by the viewer, and so it will not receive a second thought from them. The text and the illustration should, first of all, be clear and should in every way possible assist the mind of the possible customer in forming a correct idea of ​​the goods being exploited. This is what the Psychology of Advertising is all about; Getting the viewer to remember your product and purchasing it.

Shopping for Cruises Online! How?

Are you planning a cruise vacation but do not know where to start? Have you shopped for a cruise vacation? How did you accomplish your shopping? Did you do your shopping for cruises online? Were you successful in getting the best cruise vacation for you?

I could continue with questions regarding cruise shopping and in particular on-line cruise shopping. But that would not accomplish much without some answers to some nagging questions:

1. Where do I start to find the right cruise vacation?

2. How can I find a cruise vacation itinerary that suits me, my family, my loved one?

3. What cruise line should I consider for my vacation cruise?

4. What stateroom category would best suit my vacation needs?

5. How do I compare cruise vacation deals?

More questions. Perhaps we can answer a few of these questions and help you plan the perfect cruise vacation and purchase the best cruise deal.

Planning a vacation can be an exciting part of the vacation experience as a whole. As you explore and research, the excitation buildings. You become more and more interested in finding information – without being overwhelmed – and can get great satisfaction that you will purchase the very best cruise vacation deal.

Where to Start Shopping for Cruises Online!

One can find information on cruise vacations in many locations – newspapers, friends, "brick and mortar" travel agencies and cruise travel agencies, and on-line. The best bet is to start researching for your self. Decide on where you would like your cruise vacation to travel – should it be a warm winter vacation, a fascinating and relaxing Alaskan cruise, an interesting European vacation cruise or an exciting adventure cruise. At a1-discount-cruises.com you can find merchant links, and more importantly at the start, articles about cruises, cruise itineraries, cruise lines, cruise ships, cruise wear and more to help you plan your special cruise vacation.

The Cruise Vacation Itinerary!

You have already decided on the destination of your vacation cruise. The internet allows you the quiet time needed with all resources necessary to research your cruise vacation destination. You will have no salesmen pushing a particular cruise on you because they get a special incentive to sell that cruise. You can investigate which cruise lines travel the chosen destination and find itineraries that intrigue you. A1-discount-cruises.com offers articles regarding many cruise destinations and itineraries.

What cruise line?

This question requires you to look at your lifestyle and what you would like and expect a cruise vacation to be. Different cruise lines offer different price points, different levels of luxury (although they all offer a certain amount of luxury), and different styles.

Generally speaking, the higher priced cruise lines offer a higher level of service, cuisine, and staff per cruise passenger. This does not mean that the "high end" cruise lines are right for everyone. We've all heard Carnival's advertising – "The Fun Ships". These ships and the "Free-Style Cruising" of Norwegian Cruise Lines tend to be more relaxed and less formal than say Radisson Seven Seas. It becomes a matter of preference at this point. Specific ships can also offer different levels of comfort, formality and service.

Which magnificent stateroom?

The question of what level of stateroom is a matter of taste, preference and of course cost. If you do not plan to spend much time in your room, sometimes an interior room would be suitable. These tend to be the best price point rooms as well. An "ocean view" room provides the passenger with a window from which to look at the day before getting ready for the day's events. Our personal preference is a stateroom with a private deck or veranda. We can sit early in the morning for a few minutes and enjoy each other's company taking in the fresh sea air. And later in the day, before getting ready for the fine dining aboard the cruise ships, we can again have our private time together sipping a glass of fine wine on our deck watching the islands drift by. Sometimes a suite is more suitable. On some cruise lines, the upper level of suites offers concierge or butler service. Whatever stateroom you choose, you will surely enjoy your cruise vacation in comfort.

How to compare Cruise Deals?

Now for the "biggie". How can I compare the cruise deals to get the absolute best value for me? If you have done your research well, it will likely be a simple task. "This cruise offers the itinerary on our preferred cruise line in the stateroom of choice at a price within our budget." However, you will want to compare deals with those exact specifications. At a1-discount cruises.com, we have a number of on-line cruise merchants who are waiting for you to send a request. Do not be afraid to offer your email address when requested. This will allow dialog without pressure so that you can ask questions or get clarifications in the privacy of your home or office. Check out two or three three – or more – of the merchants to see how their pricing is and what incentives if any they have to offer you. If you are still unsure about dealing with an on-line merchant, check out your specific cruise with a "brick and mortar" cruise travel merchant and compare the value.

After you have done this, you can book your cruise knowing that you are getting the best cruise vacation. You have planned for your needs, interests and lifestyle. You have compared pricing with a number of qualified cruise merchants. All that's left to do is book your cruise on-line and get excited!

Check out some of the other informative articles relating to cruise vacations at a1-discount cruises.com. You may just find the cruise vacation deal that's best suited to you!

Understanding the Boundary Between Education and Literacy

The Title is self-explanatory. Let’s clear our concepts first;

What is Literacy?

Literacy is the ability to read, write and express ourselves. The key to literacy is reading development, a progression of skills that begins with the ability to understand spoken words and decode written words, and culminates in the deep understanding of text.

What is Education?

I define Education as the capability to use the ability to express ourselves. This is one line definition of education. Education is the application of literacy, not just the literacy.

A person can’t say that “I am educated because I know how to read, write and express myself.”

Coming to my point, Are we really getting educated or just literate? People pursuing great degrees are still left unemployed. Students with great minds and talents are unemployed and maximum number of unemployment can be seen in engineering. Why is this? The answer to all these questions is THEY ARE JUST LITERATE, NOT EDUCATED.

They lack skills because they just know to express themselves but they don’t know how to express, why to express and what to express. Education involves whole methodology of applying skills, to foster development and exploring new ideas.

Now, coming to India’s education system, I believe that India is focussing on its academics but not in proper manner. Children here are characterized on the basis of their grades, marks and how much they know, not on their talent, skills and how much they discover the undiscovered. The children who have knowledge are intelligent but the children who discover and explore knowledge are called to be wise and genius.

Taking an example, Albert Einstein found no profit and interest in knowing history and learning those dates, left one of the best schools by giving fake medical certificate of nervous breakdown and started discovering the undiscovered, exploring the unexplored and fostering the science and technology not for anyone else but for himself, for getting inner satisfaction and peace. He is one of the best scientists who brought a new look to the era of science.

The people in India who are extremely talented and skillful, leave the country for getting better jobs and opportunities in foreign cities. Why this happens? What is the reason? What makes people and talents of India to leave such a wonderful country? Is this because of outer fantasies, glories or fame? No, the answer is, India lacks in its education system which makes Indian talents to settle outside.

India is a democratic developing country. India is developing constantly in its academics but in wrong way. We are just getting LITERATE, not EDUCATED.

Leaving a question for you;

Are you just literate or educated?

The Most Important Things to Know Before Potty Training Boys

Is potty training boys harder than potty training girls?

Some say "Yes", I say "No, not really."

I only add the "not really" part because potty training boys properly requires a bit more preparation only because parents have to make a few more decisions before beginning (which I'll discuss below). But the basic approach is exactly the same for potty training boys and girls.

So, in spite of what you may have heard, the following "myths" are not true:

1. Boys are more stubborn and less motivated than girls, and therefore harder to potty train.
2. Potty training boys is a lot longer process than potty training girls.
3. Boys are less motivated and therefore less cooperative during potty training.
4. Boys can not be potty trained until they're three.

If you believe any of the above statements, the first thing you should do is erase them from your memory bank, because they're simply a bunch of hooey, and if you buy into any of them, you're doing your son and your Wallet a big disservice.

Therefore, let me set the record straight. If your son is a normal, healthy toddler he should be ready for potty training at about 18 months (average) although some boys are ready earlier or later – anywhere from 12 to 27 months.

Boys who are ready for potty training will often begin to imitate their fathers or brothers (it's as though they realize the differences in genders) and may even start to stand at the toilet like them (even if they have no idea what to do once there !). And once the potty training process begins, they may also ask to use the toilet like them. If so, go for it!
If your child wants to be like daddy or like his older brother and believers, by all means, then let him stand! Power struggles are big no-nos in the potty training world …

So, what is the biggest difference between potty training boys and potty training girls? In my opinion, the only significant variance between the two is that parents need to decide ahead of time if they'll train their sons to urinate standing up or sitting down, so they'll know what kind of equipment they'll need.

My advise? Teach boys to urinate and have bowel movements sitting down. Period. (By the way, The American Academy of Pediatrics supports this advice).

Here's why:

1. You'll need less equipment. You can begin training using a potty chair only – no need for stools, urinals, and the like.

2. They'll learn "potty basics" faster. Remember, your son is learning a brand new skill – one that requires his – and yours – complete concentration and cooperation. So, why complicate the process by introducing too many things at once? Once your son has learned to use the potty, the big learning curve is over and it's reliably easy to teach them to urinate standing up, when the time is right.

3. Potty chairs are much "friendlier" when children are sitting. Consider this … potty chairs are low to the ground (purposefully, so toddlers can get on and off them easily), less "weak," and have much smaller openings than traditional toilets. Therefore, when children pee standing up, there's likely to be a good deal of splashing. The alternative is a urinal for peeing, and a potty chair or toilet for poop; A toilet for both; Egypt a potty chair for both. If you choose to use a toilet, you'll need to make sure you have a step stool (so your son can get on and off the processed by himself) and should consider purchasing a seat reducer (or else there's a better than even chance That your son may be frightened by the large opening – a very common fear).

4. You'll have less mess. Just put, potty training boys standing up is just plain messy, because little boys are notoriously bad aims – even with the best of intentions – so you can expect lots of dribbling down the potty chair, on the seat, and yes, all over the Floors and walls. It just comes with the territory.

5. Potty chairs are more flexible. One of the very best things about potty chairs is their portability. That's right … you can load them up and bring them with you, and your son can pee pee or poop on the fly (no pun intended:>). Trust me, this will come in very, very handy during your potty training journey. For whatever reason, you'll find that your child suddenly has to pee (and I mean, "really, really bad.") At the most inopportune times and your portable potty chair will be a Godsend. Yes, little boys can urinate in a potty chair standing up, but you'll need to bring lots of wipes with you!

Please also keep in mind that regardless of whether you're potty training boys or girls, consistency is king (in fact this is one of the core principles of our potty training system)! So, please see to it that whichever method you use, it's reinforced by all of the other adults who come in regular contact with your son.

This is especially true if your son is enrolled in pre-school, day care or has a nanny or babysitter. In fact, some organizations have very specific rules regarding potty training – especially as it relates to potty training boys. Therefore, it's a good idea to check with your childcare providers beforehand, so you're all on the same page.

Once again, I hope my advice on potty training boys has been helpful and you'll take the time to check out my other potty training articles!